Al-Andalus was the area of the Iberian peninsula came under Muslim rule between 711 and 1492.
The Battle of Guadalete (711) led to the rapid fall of United Visigodo. The Visigoth king Rodrigo disappeared in battle. Toledo, the capital of the kingdom without a king unprotected and fell quickly. Muslim troops led by Tariq and Musa conquered almost all of the Iberian Peninsula in four years and with relative ease. Only they were Christians pockets of resistance in the Cantabrian and Pyrenees.
Al-Andalus initially depended on the Caliphate of Damascus and was ruled by a wali but soon became the Emirate of Cordoba between 756 and 929 and later the Caliphate of Córdoba between 929 and 1031, and after the dissolution of which finally appeared the Taifa.
Iberia benefited from international trade and technical advances that Muslims introduced. Agriculture or experienced extraordinary progress with new irrigation techniques and souks filled with products circulating throughout the Islamic world. With advanced forms Christians to reconquer also received the influence of Al-Andalus in areas such as technical andelantos in agriculture or access to Muslim texts classic works and translations
Both the Alhambra in Granada and the Mosque of Cordoba are the two greatest expressions of luxury and power which reached Al-Andalus during their splendor. Cordoba is the epitome of Al-Andalus, its 100,000 inhabitants, Grand Mosque with a capacity for 50,000 people, the palace of Medina Azara, the madrasa or university and all intellectuals of all branches of science, medicine, astronomy, mathematics etc They lived in Cordoba made this one of the most important economic and cultural centers of the world.