Ancient Mesopotamia

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Talking about Mesopotamia means discovering countless cultures, kings, city-states and wars:

  • Sumerians
  • Acadians
  • Amorites
  • Babylon
  • Assyria
  • Persia

Ancient Mesopotamia, located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers was the cradle of civilization. In ancient Mesopotamia there were many people, but can be divided into two groups whose relations between the two marked largely the history of the whole region of Mesopotamia: sedentary and nomadic.

  • The first settlements were Umm, Eridu and the Obeid
  • During the fourth and third millennia BC the Sumerians and Akkadian developed their civilizations in Mesopotamia.
  • Centuries later the Assyrian Empire was one of the most fascinating in ancient history.
  • The height of Mesopotamia was not only in the Assyrian and Babylonian empires. During the Arab time Mesopotamia was seat of the caliphate but thereafter began to decline.

Both, culture and technical advances were developed by the Mesopotamians and have transpired and influenced the current European and Western culture and are the origin of our thinking and living:

  • Wheel.
  • The first cities.
  • The use of natural resources.
  • The maths.
  • Writing

Sumer

Sumer can be considered as the oldest civilization in the world, in fact it is the first urban civilization known. Probably the Sumerian culture began to take shape in the city of Uruk subsequently spread throughout the rest of Lower Mesopotamia. In this city the wheel appeared around 3500 BC and writing appeared at around 3300 BC This latest development marks the transition between the Prehistory and History. The Sumerian civilization made possible the transition between the urban centers of the Neolithic to the first cities with a complex organization.

The Akkadian Empire

The Akkadian Empire begins thanks to the conquests of Sargon of Akkad the Great who was the first monarch capable of unifying Ancient Mesopotamia.

Hammurabi

After a dark period resurfaced Sumerian dynasties and after them the Amorites. Soon begin the Babylonian Empire, with the coming to power of Hammurabi in Babylon.

Assyrians

After a period marked by the conquests of the Hittites, the Assyrian culture developed in the region of ancient Mesopotamia between 1800 and 600 aJ They were known for their fighting capacity and great cruelty to the enemy defeated.

Persian Invasion

Babylon ends defeating the Assyrian and Chaldean empire develops until Persia with Cyrus the Great conquered all Mesopotamia.


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