The Mesolithic is the transition between the Paleolithic and Neolithic between 10,000 BC and 7,000 B.C. Humanity is still engaged in hunting and gathering but the last ice age has ended. Mesolithic is a time when climate changes altered ecosystems, and the type of available hunt vary significantly. Many animals became extinct and others migrated to higher latitudes. Bison and reindeer migrated north and type of hunt that remained like deers and wild boars was much more difficult to capture.
In the Middle East the temperate rain climate changed to a progressive desertification which caused a slow evolution of human behaviour.
Gradually Mesolithic human societies were becoming sedentary, grouped in more or less permanent settlements and began a slow transformation from hunting and gathering to agriculture and grazing. New foods that previously were not consumed appeared.
Note that this time does not break with the previous one, but there was continuity and a slow transformation towards sedentary, task specialization and the first hierarchies that eventually led to the Neolithic.
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