Neolithic in Mesopotamia
The first signs of Neolithic arose over 8000a.C. agriculture and livestock beginning to appear. The Neolithic in Mesopotamia was carried out by Umm, Hassuna, Tell Halaf and Samarra cultures. Subsequently they were succeeded by cultures of Eridu and El Obeid.
Elements that characterize the Neolithic in Ancient Mesopotamia
The Neolithic introduced a number of new features which are:
- Adobes made with molds.
- Ceramics manufactured by potter's wheel.
- Copper metallurgy, by melting the metal.
- First and rudimentary temples.
- Control of watercourses and irrigation of land with irrigation canals and drainage for excess of water.
- Appearance of the first Sumerian cities.
Chronology Neolithic in Mesopotamia
- From 6000 to 5500 B.C. A.C. Umm-called culture.
- Between 5500 B.C. 4500 BC following cultures extend (from north to south of Mesopotamia): Halaf, Hassuna and Samarra.
- Between 5000 BC and 4500 BC emerges in southern Mesopotamia Eridu culture, also commonly called the Obeid 1 and Obeid 2.
- Between 4500 BC and 3500 BC it was began using copper metallurgy so it is entered in the period Calcolithic. It is known as the culture of the Obeid (divided into two periods Obeid Obeid 3 and 4).
- From 3500 BC it can be considered that the Sumerian civilization is the dominant one in Ancient Mesopotamia.
- About 3300 BC appears the first evidence of cuneiform writing in Mesopotamia. Ends Prehistory and Mankind enters into history.
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