The Mesolithic is the transition between the Paleolithic and Neolithic between 10,000 BC and 7,000 B.C. Humanity still engaged in hunting and gathering but the last ice age has ended. The Mesolithic is a time when climate change altered ecosystems, and the type of game available vary significantly. Many animals became extinct and others migrated to higher latitudes. Bison and reindeer migrated north and type of hunting was, like deer and wild boar was much more difficult to capture.
In the Middle East the climate temperate rain changed to a progressive desertification which caused a slow evolution of human behavior.
Gradually Mesolithic human societies were becoming sedentary, grouped in more or less permanent settlements and began a slow transformation from hunting and gathering to agriculture and grazing. New foods that previously were not consumed.
Note that this time not break with the previous one, but there was continuity and a slow transformation towards sedentary, task specialization and the first hierarchies that eventually led to the Neolithic.
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